Important Papers and Studies

Also see 'US Government Links' (under Resources) for various Treasury and GAO reports. Also see 'Immigration and Remittances' (under Resources.) Also see 'Remittances and Consumer Issues' (under Topics.)

Appleseed Report
Banking in a Global Market - January 2008 Report Supplement - January 2008

Evolving Financial Services Markets: Recent Trends in Reaching Mexican Immigrants - 2004 / 2006

Expanding Immigrant Access to Mainstream Financial Services - 2006

Expanding and Improving Financial Services for Low - and Moderate - Income Immigrant Communities: Next Steps - 2006

Study of US-Mexico Remittance Market - 2005

Summary: Study of US-Mexico Remittance Market - 2005

Appleseed Releases Report on Remittances, Calls for Transparency in the U.S.- Mexico Remittance Market - December 2005

Fair Exchange Follow-Up: Appleseed and Private-Sector Partners Announce New Fair ExchangeBrand -- Launch Market-Based Pilot of Pricing Disclosure for International Remittance Transactions, April 12, 2007.

Meeting the Financial Service Needs of Mexican Immigrants - 2004

Immigrant Financial Services: Guide for Non-profits - 2004

Appleseed Projects
Immigrant Access: Latin American Immigrant Access to Financial Institutions

Bank for International Settlements
General principles for international remittance services - final version.

Draft Version Issued for Comment - March 2006
- Comments were invited from any interested parties, comment period closed August 18, 2006.

CGAP - Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank

Making Money Transfers Work for Microfinance Institutions A Technical Guide to Developing and Delivering Money Transfers - Draft for Public Review - December 2006- Jennifer Isern, William Donges, Jeremy Smith.

CRS - Congressional Research Service
Money Laundering: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1956 and Related Federal Criminal Law

Manual de Inspeccion BSA/AML del FFIEC (BSA/AML Manual 2007 - Spanish)

Financial Services Authority
FSA - Confirmation of Industry Guidance -
November 2006
The Financial Services Authority last week set out plans to encourage greater use of Industry Guidance as it moves towards a more principles-based approach to regulation.

Industry Guidance includes Codes of Practice and similar Statements generated by trade associations and professional bodies to help their members understand and follow good practice in meeting regulatory requirements.

A Discussion Paper sets out the FSA's thinking on the role of Industry Guidance in a more principles-based regulatory structure. The paper:

  • recognizes that industry guidance is not new, but already exists in different parts of the regulatory system
  • makes clear that industry guidance will supplement rules not replace them
  • sets out a standard process for FSA to recognize industry guidance
  • makes clear the standards that will be applied in recognizing such guidance
  • confirms that the FSA will not take action against a firm which has complied with recognized guidance covering the issue concerned

The paper is the outcome of a review the FSA carried out this year to see how it can work with industry codes in solving market failures and defining practices which are consistent with an FSA Rule Book modeled more on high-level principles and rules.

The FSA is looking for comments and feedback to the Discussion Paper by 31 January 2007.

FindLaw - (Home page)
FSA - The Financial Services Authority website page

Financial Institutions and the Remittances Market in the Dominican Republic - Lenora Suki - The Earth Institute at Columbia University - November 2004

International Monetary Fund

April 2007
A Theory of "Crying Wolf": The Economics of Money Laundering Enforcement
Előd Takáts, IMF Working Paper, Western Hemisphere Department

Remittances Statistics - April 2006

Financial Intelligence Units: An Overview - July 23, 2004 - IMF/World Bank (English version.)

Unidades de Inteligencia Financiera: Panorama General - 23 de Julio de 2004

INCSR - 2009 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control

Volume II: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes

INCSR - 2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control

Volume II: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes

Related Material

INCSR - 2007 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control

Volume II: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes

Presidential Determination on Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals

Related Material

INCSR - 2006 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control

Volume II: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes

Related Material

The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws

Drafts of Uniform and Model Acts: Uniform Money Services Act
Formerly known as the Non-Depository Providers of Financial Services Act & as Uniform Money Services Business Act.

National Conference of State Legislatures
Immigrant Policy - 2006 State Legislation Related to Immigration: Enacted and Vetoed
October 31, 2006

2007 Enacted State Legislation Related to Immigrants and Immigration
January 31, 2008

2007 Final Report

Nikos Passas, Professor Ph.D., -
University of Edinburgh (Scotland); MA in Criminology (D.E.A.), University of Paris - Paris II; LL.B., University of Athens
Northeastern University - College of Criminal Justice

Fighting Terror with Error: The Counter-productive Regulation of Informal Value Transfers

Roger Ballard, Consultant Anthropologist
Remittance Transfers through Hawala Networks

Coalitionsof reciprocity and the maintenance of financial integrity within informal value transmission systems: The Operational Dynamics of Contemporary Hawala Networks

Hawala: Criminal Haven or Vital Financial Network?

Samuel Munzele Maimbo
The Regulation And Supervision Of Informal Remittance Systems: Emerging Oversight Strategies -November 24, 2004

Pew Hispanic
Between Here and There: How Attached Are Latino Immigrants to Their Native Country? October 25, 2007... Roger Waldinger, University of California, Los Angeles

Latino Immigrants, Remittances and Banking

2006 National Survey of Latinos - The Immigration Debate - July 13, 2006

The Remittance Marketplace: Prices, Policy and Financial Institutions - Dr. Manuel Orozco - June 7, 2004

Remittance Senders And Receivers - Tracking The Transnational Channels - November 24, 2003

Uniform Money Services Business Act (There is also a 2004 cyberpayments model...)
Uniform Money Services Act- Final Act 2000 (Last Revised or Amended in 2004)

2004 Annual Meeting Approved Text

2004 Annual Meeting Memo

Amendments to Uniform Money Services Act, March 2004 -
The above links were clipped from the UPENN page, q.v. for complete listings. (Scroll 3/4's down to view. Also see Uniform Non-Depository Providers of Financial Services Act on the same page.)

UN-INSTRAW - United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
UN-STRAW - (Home page.)

Women Migrants must be Better Heard to make Remittances more Effective for Development, urged a UN Top Official - July 10, 2007
Gender and Remittances

Letter Dated 08/30/2006 from the Permanent Representative of the Dominican Republic to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the General Assembly - 09/14/2006 (Click on "Welcome,' then click on "Simple Search.' Enter A/61/343 in the box marked "Symbol,' then hit enter.)

The Wolfsberg Principles

Global Banks: Global Standards - 2006

Wolfsberg AML Principles for Correspondent Banking - 2006

World Bank